Anderson, Paul. “Second John and Women.”
Brooten, Bernadette J. “‘Junia . . . Outstanding among the Apostles’ (Romans 16:7).” Pages 141-144 in
Women Priests: A Catholic Commentary on the Vatican Declaration. Edited by Arlene Swinder and Leonard Swindler. New York: Paulist Press, 1977. Readable online!
A third example, which is not discussed quite as much, is 1 Peter 5:13. This verse comes as part of the farewell greeting at the end of the letter of 1 Peter, which claims to be written by the apostle Peter from “Babylon” (a code word for Rome) to churches in Asia Minor. As he wraps up the letter the author gives a shout out on behalf of two people, or one person and a group, depending on which interpretation you go with. Some of the different interpretive options for the identities of these greeters can be seen in the way the verse is rendered into English:
“She who is at Babylon, who is likewise chosen, sends you greetings; and so does my son Mark” (RSV).
“Your sister church in Babylon, chosen together with you, sends you greeting; and so does my son Mark” (NRSV).So is it “she who is at Babylon” (whoever that may be), or “your sister church in Babylon”? As Judith Applegate notes, the Greek is literally something along the lines of: “the (feminine form) in Babylon co-elect (feminine form)’. Greek has grammatical gender, like German, Italian, and lots of other languages. What we see in this verse is an adjective in the feminine form “the co-elect.” Adjectives can of course modify a noun “the co-elect [insert a noun here].” But they can also be used as substantives, where they basically function as nouns. For example, in English, we can say “the good dog,” “the bad cat,” and “the ugly Guinea pig.” Or we can use them as substantives: “The good, the bad, and the ugly.” In this verse, the adjective is used as a substantive, which leaves us wondering, who/what exactly is “the co-elect”?
Applegate, Judith K. “The Co-Elect Woman of 1 Peter.” New Testament Studies 38 (1992): 587-604.